DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier, which is a unique alphanumeric string attached to an article that has been published electronically. It looks like this:




The 6th edition of the APA manual recommends using the DOI number instead of the location of the database. Therefore, an APA article citation would look like this:


Walker, L. J., Hennig, K. H., & Krettenauer, T. (2000) Parent and peer
       contexts for children's moral reasoning development. Child
       Development, 71, 1033-1048. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00207


If the article does not list a DOI number, you can look up the DOI number using the free DOI lookup at


If the article does not have an assigned doi number, use the old method of citing the name of the database.

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